1. Introduction
This section is nonnormative.
The shifting of DOM elements on a webpage detracts from the user’s experience, and occurs frequently on the web today. This shifting is often due to content loading asynchronously and displacing other elements on the page.
The layout Instability API identifies these unstable pages by reporting a value (the "layout shift") for each animation frame in the user’s session. This specification presents a method for a user agent to compute the layout shift value.
The layout shift value is expected to have a general correspondence to the severity of layout instability at a particular time. The method of computing it considers both the area of the region impacted by instability and the distance by which elements on the page are shifted.
1.1. Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS)
This section is nonnormative.
The layout shift value represents a single point in time, but it is also useful to have a value to represent the total instability of the page for the period of time the user spends on it.
To that end we propose two values that a user agent or a developer is able to compute to obtain such a representation. (These definitions are nonnormative, because the API does not expose these values.)

The document cumulative layout shift (DCLS) score is the sum of every layout shift value that is reported inside a single browsing context. (The DCLS score does not account for layout instability inside descendant browsing contexts.)

The cumulative layout shift (CLS) score is the sum of every layout shift value that is reported inside a toplevel browsing context, plus a fraction (the subframe weighting factor) of each layout shift value that is reported inside any descendant browsing context.

The subframe weighting factor for a layout shift value in a child browsing context is the fraction of the toplevel viewport that is occupied by the viewport of the child browsing context.
The cumulative layout shift score is expected to have a general correspondence to the severity of layout instability for the lifetime of a page.
The developer can use this API to compute the DCLS or CLS scores, by summing the values as they are reported to the observer, and taking the "final" score at the time of the visibilitychange event.
This strategy is illustrated in the usage example.
1.2. Source attribution
This section is nonnormative.
In addition to the layout shift value, the API reports a sampling of up to five DOM elements whose layout shifts most substantially contributed to the layout shift value for an animation frame.
It is possible that the true "root cause" of instability will be only indirectly related to the DOM element that experiences a layout shift. For example, if a newly inserted element shifts content below it, the sources attribute will report only the shifted elements, and not the inserted element.
We do not believe it is feasible for the user agent to understand causes of instability at the level of indirection necessary for a meaningful "root cause" attribution. However, we expect that the more straightforward reporting of shifted elements presented in this API will nevertheless be of significant value to developers who are attempting to diagnose an occurrence of layout instability.
1.3. Usage example
This section is nonnormative.
let perFrameLayoutShiftData= []; let cumulativeLayoutShiftScore= 0 ; function updateCLS( entries) { for ( const entryof entries) { // Only count layout shifts without recent user input. if ( entry. hadRecentInput) return ; perFrameLayoutShiftData. push({ score: entry. value, timestamp: entry. startTime}); cumulativeLayoutShiftScore+= entry. value; } } // Observe all layout shift occurrences. const observer= new PerformanceObserver(( list) => { updateCLS( list. getEntries()); }); observer. observe({ type: 'layoutshift' , buffered: true }); // Send final data to an analytics back end once the page is hidden. document. addEventListener( 'visibilitychange' , () => { if ( document. visibilityState=== 'hidden' ) { // Force any pending records to be dispatched. updateCLS( observer. takeRecords()); // Send data to your analytics back end (assumes `sendToAnalytics` is // defined elsewhere). sendToAnalytics({ perFrameLayoutShiftData, cumulativeLayoutShiftScore}); } });
The layout shift score is only one signal, which correlates in an approximate manner with the user experience of "jumpiness".
Developers are advised not to worry about small variations between layout shift scores; this metric is not intended to be a highprecision value, and user agents might compromise precision in the interest of calculation efficiency. Moreover, the definition of the metric might evolve over time.
2. Terminology
2.1. Basic Concepts
The starting point of a Node
N in a coordinate space C is defined as follows:

If N is an
Element
which generates one or more boxes, the starting point of N in C is the twodimensional offset in pixel units from the origin of C to the flowrelative starting corner of the first fragment of the principal box of N. 
If N is a text node, the starting point of N in C is the twodimensional offset in pixel units from the origin of C to the flowrelative starting corner of the first line box generated by N.
The transformindifferent starting point of a Node
N in a
coordinate space C is the starting point of N in C, calculated as if
every transformed element had a transformation matrix equal to the
identity matrix.
NOTE: To determine whether a node has shifted, we consider the starting point both with and without transforms, to ensure that a node is not made unstable solely due to a transform change. However, the CSS transform is always taken into account for the calculation of the visual representation and the associated exclusion of points outside of the viewport.
The visual representation of a Node
N is defined as
follows:

If N is an
Element
which generates one or more boxes, the visual representation of N is the set of all points that lie within the bounds of any fragment of any box generated by N, in the coordinate space of the viewport, excluding any points that lie outside of the viewport. 
If N is a text node, the visual representation of N is the set of all points that lie within the bounds of any line box generated by N, in the coordinate space of the viewport, excluding any points that lie outside of the viewport.
A condition holds in the previous frame if it was true at the point in time immediately after the most recently completed invocation of the report the layout shift algorithm.
The previous frame starting point of a Node
N in a
coordinate space C is the point which, in the previous frame, was the starting point of N in C.
The previous frame transformindifferent starting point of a Node
N in a coordinate space C is the point which, in the previous
frame, was the transformindifferent starting point of N in C.
The previous frame visual representation of a Node
N is
the set which, in the previous frame, was the visual
representation of N.
Point A differs significantly from point B if A and B differ by 3 or more pixel units in either the horizontal or vertical direction.
2.2. Unstable Nodes
A Node
N has shifted in a coordinate space C if:

the starting point of N in C differs significantly from the previous frame starting point of N in C, and

the transformindifferent starting point of N in C differs significantly from the previous frame transformindifferent starting point of N in C.
Otherwise, N has not shifted in C.
A Node
N is unstable if:

N is either

currently and in the previous frame, the computed value of the visibility property for N equals "visible"; and

currently and in the previous frame, the computed value of the opacity property for N and for every ancestor of N is not equal to 0; and

N has shifted in the coordinate space of the viewport; and

N has shifted in the coordinate space of the initial containing block; and

there does not exist an
Element
P such that
currently and in the previous frame, P is in the containing block chain of N, and

currently and in the previous frame, P has a scrollable overflow region, and

P is not unstable, and

N has not shifted in the coordinate space of the scrollable overflow region of P.

NOTE: The final condition is intended to prevent nodes from being considered unstable solely because of a scroll operation.
The unstable node set of a Document
D is the set
containing every unstable shadowincluding descendant of D.
NOTE: In the first frame, the previous frame starting point does not exist for any node, and therefore the unstable node set is empty.
2.3. Layout Shift Value
The viewport base distance is the greater of the visual viewport width and the visual viewport height.
The move vector of a Node
N is the twodimensional
offset in pixel units from

the previous frame starting point of N in the coordinate space of the viewport, to

the starting point of N in the coordinate space of the viewport.
The move distance of a Node
N is the greater of

the absolute value of the horizontal component of the move vector of N, and

the absolute value of the vertical component of the move vector of N.
The maximum move distance of a Document
D is the
greatest move distance of any Node
in the unstable node set of D, or 0 if the unstable node set of D is empty.
The distance fraction of a Document
D is the lesser of

the maximum move distance of D divided by the viewport base distance (or 0 if the viewport base distance is 0), and

1.0.
The node impact region of an unstable Node
N is the set containing

every point in the visual representation of N, and

every point in the previous frame visual representation of N.
The impact region of a Document
D is the set containing
every point in the node impact region of any Node
in the unstable node set of D.
The impact fraction of a Document
D is the area of the impact region divided by the area of the viewport (or 0 if the
area of the viewport is 0).
NOTE: Computing the area of the impact region is an instance of the Klee measure problem in two dimensions. A solution using a sweep line and a segment tree, with time complexity O(n lg n) for n unstable nodes, is described here.
The layout shift value of a Document
D is the impact
fraction of D multiplied by the distance fraction of D.
NOTE: The layout shift value takes into account both the fraction of the viewport that has been impacted by layout instability as well as the greatest distance by which any given element has moved. This recognizes that a large element which moves only a small distance can have a low impact on the perceived instability of the page.
2.4. Input Exclusion
An excluding input is any event from an input device which signals a user’s active interaction with the document, or any event which directly changes the size of the viewport.
Excluding inputs generally include mousedown, keydown, pointerdown, and change events. However, an event whose only effect is to begin or update a fling or scroll gesture is not an excluding input.
The user agent may delay the reporting of layout shifts after a pointerdown event until such time as it is known that the event does not begin a fling or scroll gesture.
The mousemove and pointermove events are also not excluding inputs.
3. LayoutShift
interface
[Exposed =Window ]interface :
LayoutShift PerformanceEntry {readonly attribute double value ;readonly attribute boolean hadRecentInput ;readonly attribute DOMHighResTimeStamp lastInputTime ;readonly attribute FrozenArray <LayoutShiftAttribution >sources ; [Default ]object (); };
toJSON
All attributes have the values which are assigned to them by the steps to report the layout shift.
A user agent implementing the Layout Instability API must include
in supportedEntryTypes
for Window contexts. This allows developers to detect support for the Layout Instability API.
4. LayoutShiftAttribution
interface
[Exposed =Window ]interface {
LayoutShiftAttribution readonly attribute Node ?;
node readonly attribute DOMRectReadOnly previousRect ;readonly attribute DOMRectReadOnly currentRect ; };
Each LayoutShiftAttribution
is associated with a Node
(its associated node).
The getter of the node attribute
of a LayoutShiftAttribution
instance A invokes the get an element algorithm with the associated node of A, and the node document of the associated node of A, as inputs, and returns the result of
that algorithm.
Note: The use of the get an element algorithm ensures that the node attribute is null if the attributed node is no longer connected, or is inside a shadow root.
The get an element algorithm should be moved out of the Element Timing spec and into a place more suitable for reuse here.
The get an element algorithm should be generalized to accept Node
instead of Element
.
The previousRect and currentRect attributes have the values which are assigned to them by the steps to create the attribution.
5. Processing model
Within the update the rendering step of the event loop processing model, a user agent implementing the Layout Instability API MUST perform the following step after the step that invokes the mark paint timing algorithm:

For each fully active
Document
in docs, invoke the algorithm to report the layout shift for thatDocument
.
5.1. Report the layout shift
Document
D, run the following steps:

If the current layout shift value of D is not 0:

Create a new
LayoutShift
object newEntry with D’s relevant realm. 
Set newEntry’s
name
attribute to
."layoutshift" 
Set newEntry’s
entryType
attribute to
."layoutshift" 
Set newEntry’s
startTime
attribute to current high resolution time given D’s relevant global object. 
Set newEntry’s
duration
attribute to 0. 
Set newEntry’s
value
attribute to the current layout shift value of D. 
Set newEntry’s
lastInputTime
attribute to the time of the most recent excluding input, or 0 if no excluding input has occurred during the browsing session. 
Set newEntry’s
hadRecentInput
attribute to
iftrue lastInputTime
is less than 500 milliseconds in the past, and
otherwise.false 
Set newEntry’s
sources
attribute to the result of invoking the algorithm to report the layout shift sources for D. 
Queue the PerformanceEntry newEntry object.

5.2. Report the layout shift sources
Document
D, run the following steps:

For each member N of the unstable node set of D, run these steps:

If there exists any member existingNode of C such that the node impact region of N is a subset of the node impact region of existingNode, then continue.

Otherwise, if there exists any member existingNode of C such that the node impact region of existingNode is a subset of the node impact region of N, then replace the first such member existingNode with N in C.

Otherwise, if there are fewer than 5 members of C, then append N to C.
NOTE: The choice of 5 is arbitrary but it balances providing detailed attribution while not having a prohibitive memory cost or being spammy in the set of nodes exposed.

Otherwise, run these steps:

Let smallest be the first member of C whose node impact region is not greater in area than the node impact region of any other member of C.

If the area of the node impact region of N is greater than the area of the node impact region of smallest, then replace smallest with N in C.



Return a
FrozenArray
ofLayoutShiftAttribution
objects created by running the algorithm to create the attribution once for each member of C.
Node
N,
run the following steps:

Create a new
LayoutShiftAttribution
object A with N’s relevant realm. 
Set the associated node of A to N.

Set the
previousRect
attribute of A to the smallest Rectangle containing the previous frame visual representation of N. 
Set the
currentRect
attribute of A to the smallest Rectangle containing the visual representation of N. 
Return A.
6. Security & privacy considerations
Layout instability bears an indirect relationship to resource timing, as slow resources could cause intermediate layouts that would not otherwise be performed. Resource timing information can be used by malicious websites for statistical fingerprinting. The layout instability API only reports instability in the current browsing context. It does not directly provide any aggregation of instability scores across multiple browsing contexts. Developers can implement such aggregation manually, but browsing contexts with different origins would need to cooperate to share instability scores.